Sterilisation in women is done through bilateral Tubal ligation. This is a surgical sterilization process in which the Fallopian tubes are blocked and the eggs are thus prevented from getting fertilized. The fallopian tubes are either clamped with a tight ring or a segment cauterized and divided.
Tubal ligation is a permanent method of sterilization and is to be opted for only when the patient has completed her family and is not planning for future pregnancies.
It is performed as a daycare surgery. One gets admitted in the morning and is discharged by evening. A small 5mm incision is made within the scar of the belly button and a 7mm incision on one side of the abdomen. The laparoscope camera and the applicator are inserted through these openings and the procedure is performed under anesthesia.
The outcomes for this procedure are very good in most centers.
- Failure rate (pregnancy chances) of 1 in 200
- Among those who conceive( 1:200) the chances of tubal ectopic pregnancy is 1 in 200.
If in future one reconsiders their decision and wants to conceive, the success rate of tubal recanalisation is 40 to 50percent.
Complications are associated with laparoscopic tubal sterilization as with any other laparoscopic procedures. They are:
- injury to bowel, blood vessels of the abdomen.
- anaesthesia related complications
- thermal injury to nearby structures due to electrocautery
- the appearance of any risks may need conversion to laparotomy ( open surgery)
Contraindications to the procedure would be:
- the patients desire for future pregnancies,
- any other conditions requiring the removal of uterus or both ovaries ,
- patient not having understood the implications of permanent sterilization and
- any other medical reasons of contraindications for laparoscopic surgery.